“While the ‘overt’ narcissists tended to be aggressive, self-aggrandizing, exploitative, and have extreme delusions of grandeur and a need for attention,” he writes, “‘covert’ narcissists were more prone to feelings of neglect or belittlement, hypersensitivity, anxiety, and delusions of persecution.”
Researchers have developed the Maladaptive Covert Narcissism Scale. It has 23 statements, and people are supposed to rate the degree to which the statements describe them. Kaufman includes the scale in this article — does it apply to anyone you know?
23 signs you’re secretly a narcissist masquerading as a sensitive introvert, on Blogs.ScientificAmerican.com.
Link provided by a Lovefraud reader.