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Sex differences in antisocial behavior can teach us about sociopathy (part 1)

Recently, there has been some discussion on Lovefraud about the relationship between antisocial behavior and sociopathy as a disorder. It has been argued that antisocial behaviors are learned by some people and so not all people who are antisocial are sociopaths. The idea is that behavior that is learned may not reflect a person’s underlying personality, and can therefore be unlearned. Many people also believe that personality features such as low empathy indicate sociopathy more than does antisocial behavior.

The above issues are important because if pervasive antisocial behavior is reflective of a deeply rooted personality profile as opposed to “social learning” then there are many more “sociopaths” than if there are a large number of antisocials who are really nice loving people underneath all that nasty behavior.

In the past three months there also has been discussion here about sex differences in violent and antisocial tendencies. These two discussions often become one discussion because there are some who believe our society teaches males to be violent and antisocial and that again “social learning” (as opposed to personality features) accounts for sex differences in antisocial behavior.

I am teaching a university course in “The Psychology of Gender” this semester. Due to the lack of good unbiased texts for the class, I am teaching from original research papers. In that context I discovered one of the most amazing books I have ever read. That book is Sex Differences in Antisocial Behavior, by Dr. Terrie Moffitt and colleagues. Anyone who wants to understand sociopaths/psychopaths should read that book. It is well worth the $20.00 – $25.00 price.

The book is not an opinion driven textbook. It is a report of years of very thorough research — The Dunedin multidisciplinary health and development study which prospectively followed about 1500 men and women born between 4/1/1972 and 3/31/1973 in Dunedin, a provincial capital city on New Zealand’s South Island. The book covers the first 21 years of their lives. These individuals have been studied at age 32 and that data is reported in other sources. I obtained all those other sources and will share them with you.

The study collected comprehensive health data on all subjects; antisocial behavior was just one aspect of the research. They collected information every year or two by interviewing parents and teachers; and as the subjects got old enough they completed self-reports and brought friends and romantic partners in for interview. The researchers also accessed government and school records. The assessment tools used were well established valid instruments. They answered the following questions which also have implications for the etiology of antisocial behavior (ASB):

• Do males show increased ASB in all circumstances and in every antisocial activity?
• Are there sex differences in the developmental course of antisocial behavior?
• What is responsible for observed sex differences?
• Does ASB have different consequences for men and women?

In the next few weeks I will summarize and discuss their results in the context of other recent research. If we accept the 1 percent figure for PCL-R psychopathy in their population, we would expect about 15 psychopaths. Antisocial personality disorder has about a 4 percent prevalence rate so we would expect 60 sociopaths based on that figure. Keep that in mind as I go through the findings.

To give you an idea of this comprehensive study here is an outline of the assessments made:

  • Parent reports ages 5, 7, 9, 11 parents completed the Rutter Child Scale- (items include tendency to fight, bully, lie, disobey, steal, truant, destroy property, irritable temper). At ages 13 and 15 parents completed the revised Behavior Problem Checklist.
    • Teacher reports done at 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 (Rutter Child Scale)
    • Self-reports were done at ages 11, 13, 15, 18, 21 (items included age appropriate antisocial and illegal acts).
    • At ages 18 and 21 Study members were asked to nominate a friend or family member who knew them well to answer 4 items (problems with aggression, doing things against the law, alcohol, drug use).
  • Results

  • Males were more antisocial than females at every age.
    • The smallest sex difference was seen at age 15.
    • Sex effect sizes ranged from d=.15 to d=.48 and indicated a small to moderate sex difference.
    • The largest age difference in antisocial behavior was at age 21.
    • Official records revealed a significant difference between males and females for every variable examined.
    • Drug and alcohol use was most similar, but was still more common in males.
  • When they pooled the data on antisocial behavior they got results similar to those reported by psychopathy researchers including Dr. Robert Hare. These researchers say that “psychopaths” are responsible for a disproportionate amount of violent and property crime in our society. In the Dunedin study most juveniles had broken the law but only a small number of juveniles were responsible for the majority of offending for both males and females. 50% of 64,062 “offenses” in 21 y/o males were reported by only 41 men (8%). 50% of the 23,613 offenses in women were reported by only 27 women (6%). The most active females were less prolific than their male counterparts.

    There are several take-home messages given by the researchers:

  • • High rate offending is concentrated among a few members of the female population, but even the most active females offend at a much lower rate than the most active males.
    • Males’ antisocial behavior is more often serious and is more likely to be sanctioned.
    • Throughout the first two decades of life males consistently emerge as more antisocial than females with two exceptions.
    • Males and females are most similar at age 15.
    • Males and females are most similar in alcohol and drug use patterns.
  • To summarize then the Dunedin study identified a group of antisocial males and females whose pattern of antisocial behavior, beginning early in life resembles that of “psychopaths.” Most psychopathy researchers say that the disorder begins in childhood. The number of antisocial males and females identified by the researchers is very close to the number predicted, but was larger than expected. The researchers also collected personality profiles of all participants, data on intimate partner violence perpetration and data on whether subjects qualified for the diagnosis of conduct disorder. Kids with conduct disorder are considered to be “psychopaths in the making.” I will share those results with you in the next weeks.



    134 Comments on "Sex differences in antisocial behavior can teach us about sociopathy (part 1)"

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    1. Tilly says:

      Should I still be afraid of him? He keeps trying to get me into trouble with the law but I havn’t done anything wrong. He knew my whole story about the solicitor and losing my home to him and the corrupt police and then he tried to do the same to me again. He won’t give any of my things back and I still have the police continually trying to charge me with things!
      Its PTSD all over again. I live in a dive now and can’t even get enough money together for the rent let alone a meal.
      Isn’t that enough for him!



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    2. Matt says:

      Tilly:

      That’s because he is setting you up. He’s using the restraining order as a shield and a sword. Since you are prohibitted from contacting him, I would take any copies of correspondence in which he tells you to come over and get your things right to the police and or district attorney’s office and ask them to intervene. Have them go with you to get your things. Do not go alone.

      Also, turn his lying ass into the insurance company and tax authorities.



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    3. endthepain says:

      Matt..

      I have done what you have sugessted in regards to “our” son…I have even let “our” son call him as he wants to talk to his dad..he has not called him back and he has not called about seeing him either???



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    4. learnthelesson says:

      END THE PAIN…

      This is unfortunate for your son, and thankfully he is young enough for you to be able to say, Daddy must be really busy or just change the subject or distract him at his young age….

      But this is what we were talking about…journaling..keeping records…enduring through this long enough to be able to someday show the court his “parenting” style. In essence, this is what you want.

      You do nothing. Its all unfolding for you, in your favor. Its not so much what to expect from him if you do this or that…its what do you want..and its you doing and going through the legal system to get it. Our moving forward with very little concern for him or about him or his behaviours on a day to day basis.

      Very hard to do, I know! But you have to for yourself and your son. The guy is non-existent until he “appears” again. You will be much further along, emeshed in a schedule and close bond with your son armed with journals and phone bills (listing calls and reasons) and listing his return calls and subject of conversations…

      All you have to do is go forward with your life and decide what you what to have happen for your son …and whats in his best interest. It may or may not include his father…you have to deem whats best. Based on your maternal instinct! Hang in there



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    5. endthepain says:

      thank you Learnthelesson…He is “apprearing” again..he will be back here tomorrow staying with his mom…he knows my son will not be comin g to his mom’s house as I will be out of town…I said he could call and set up a time to see him and no response..calls his mom and “acts” bummed out that he isnt coming but has made no attempts to even speak to his son



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    6. learnthelesson says:

      Good for you Endthepain…Lets see when and if he really “appears” and more important why….

      Again, please keep a journal…when you call, what you said, and keep the phone bills to back it up… and each day write date and No response…or whatever happens.

      Here is something else you might consider doing ” ending being made aware of the follow up actions he does or takes with him mom” There is no reason for you to know he calls his mom and is “Acting” one way or another…its all just “words/stories/chit” he is putting his mom through, and you dont need to be privvy to that. It adds to chaos and confusion and “crap” going back and forth with his mom in middle….

      Just say, Ive left him a message about contacting setting up times…and beyond that Im just really bored with hearing what he does…limit all that kind of interaction with his mom…talk to her about your son and his days…and tell her you really like your relationship with her and your son and that hearing about your x isnt what you want or need to be doing anymore! That will help you alot with all the chaos and craziness!



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    7. endthepain says:

      ..thank you..I was good today and then I came home from work and started thinking..Im soooo frustrated! the asshole doesnt even work…he went back to his wife a month and a half ago and she is supporting him AND handling child support services to try and get him out of paying it..which is crazy to me as ..up until 2 months ago…he was divorcing her and taking her to court..its just craziness!! now he is coming to his moms house to get away…isnt working while he is waiting until they lose their house..Im disgusted and grossed out..in the meantime he lies to everyone!! uuuggggghhh..I hate him…



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    8. endthepain says:

      oohh..did I mention I hate him!!! oh the lies..the endless lies….oh I love you..Im so miserable with out you..then his wife posts FAMILY pics of them on facebook…ugghhh!!! smug asshole!!! uug..needed to vent!! I am repulsed!!



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